Sant'Angelo Bridge and Castel Sant'Angelo, Rome, Roman masonry arch bridge, with spans up to 29 metres (98 feet), built over the Tagus River at Alcántara, Spain, in the early 2nd century. Fought between the Roman Republic and several Gallic tribes (mostly from areas constituting present-day France and Belgium), the Gallic Wars from 58-50 BC for-all-intents-purposes alluded to the clash of cultures. However, the rank and file legionnaires, particularly those of the later Republic and Principate, are widely revered as some of the greatest soldiers ever to engage in warfare. Contubernium of Soldiers in the Roman Army. Concrete was then poured into the water within the ring of piles. However, when on the march, particularly in enemy territory, the legion would, after a day's marching, construct a fortified camp or castra, requiring as raw materials only earth, turf and timber. Caesar was able to cross over the completed bridge and explore the area uncontested, before crossing back over and dismantling the bridge. Engineers and skilled workmen formed guilds that were dispatched throughout the empire, and these guilds spread and exchanged building ideas and principles. At the top the Y-shaped cantilevering piers were joined by long tree trunks. This Is How the Army Builds a Bridge in 98 Seconds. This rise-to-span ratio of 1:5, much lower than the 1:2 ratio found in semicircular arches, produced a large thrust against the abutments. The largest Roman bridge was Trajan's bridge over the lower Danube, constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus, which remained for over a millennium the longest bridge to have been built both in terms of overall and span length. Military engineering is the oldest of the engineering skills and was the precursor of the profession of civil engineering. The Roman army and its incredible organizational depth constituted the greatest of Roman strengths, thus setting them… #1 The Roman army was divided into units called legions. Caesar decided to confront them. The farmers and villagers living outside of Rome saw the advancing army and fled into the city of Rome for protection. The medics were so effective, in fact, that a soldier serving in the army of ancient Rome had a better chance of surviving his wounds than any who served in the American Civil War between 1861-1865 CE. After a series of failed attempts to regain the throne, the deposed king sought assistance in Clusium, an Etruscan city. During Caesar's conquest of Gaul it became necessary to secure the eastern border of the new provinces against marauding Germanic tribes. Using thin, curved slabs of stone, the bridges yielded to considerable deformation before failure. Stone bridges were made possible by the innovative use of the keystone to allow an arch construction. To solve this dilemma, the Romans developed the cofferdam, a temporary enclosure made from wooden piles driven into the riverbed to make a sheath, which was often sealed with clay. Like almost all of the engineering feats we've listed, the Romans didn't invent … [1][2] The construction was deliberately over-engineered for Caesar's stated purpose of impressing the Germanic tribes,[3] who had little experience of engineering, and to emphasise that Rome could travel wherever she wished. In human societies, identity has historically/socially been the primary vector of access to human constructs of space. They were incredibly efficient. The Segmental Arch. Camp construction was the responsibility of special engineering units to which specialists of many types belonged, officered by architecti (engineers), from a class of troops known as immunes since they were excused from or, literally, immune from, regular duties. 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