Where are others who can protect me? ), whereas anosagnosics are unaware of having a paralyzed limb, and deny it is true, even in the face of evidence (Prigatano & Schacter 1991). Behavior in the present is generated by evolved information-processing mechanisms that were constructed in the past because they solved adaptive problems in the ancestral environments in which the human line evolved. NY: Harper & Row. Evolutionary psychologists consider human emotions to be best adapted to the life our ancestors led in nomadic foraging bands. The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion is another variation on theories of emotions that takes into account both physiological arousal and the emotional experience. For example, which stimuli are considered similar should be different in different emotion states, distorting the shape of the individual's psychological "similarity space" (Shepard 1987). The first component can be handled by automating the broadcast of the identity of those emotions that, on average, reliably produced a benefit when shared: Approval or disapproval assist in communicating to social interactants one's values; fear communicated the nature of a common danger; disgust communicated avoidance and spoilage; anger, a conflict of values with a willingness to enforce one's values with a sanction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 63-72. (1997). The fact that we are capable of becoming aware of certain physiological states - our hearts thumping, bowels evacuating, stomach tightening - is surely responsible for some of the qualia evoked by emotion states that entrain such responses. Usually this leads to a system, like language, in which the decision to communicate something (or not) can be made by the individual in detailed response to the immediate circumstances. The evolution of desire. Individuals often behave as if they are in the grip of an emotion, while denying they are feeling that emotion. The payoff of each "factor of production"-of each act in the sequence-must be computed before an agent could determine whether the whole sequence was worthwhile. For example, the negative effects of incestuous conceptions are difficult for any individual to observe in the absence of a modern controlled study with numerous participants, much less integrate rationally into one's motivational system. This could be accomplished by engineering superordinate programs, each of which jointly mobilizes a subset of the psychological architecture's other programs in a particular configuration. Consciousness and the computational mind. Initially, the commitment to exploring the underlying computational architecture of the emotions may strike one as odd or infelicitous, but it leads to a large number of scientific payoffs, as we will sketch out below. In Emerging Syntheses in Science. There are six basic human emotions: anger, fear, surprise, sadness, happiness, and disgust. Inherent in this approach is the expectation that the human mind has a series of evolved subsystems designed to represent events in terms of evolutionarily recurrent situations and situational subcomponents. For example, the desire to avenge a murder or an infidelity is often experienced in this way, and are even culturally recognized as "crimes of passion" (Daly & Wilson, 1988). Those alterations that improve the machine's ability to solve reproduction-promoting tasks (compared to the earlier model design feature) will increase their own frequency over the generations, until (usually) they become universally incorporated into the species design. The study of the evolution of emotions dates back to the 19th century. So, different emotion and inference programs or subprograms may have evolved to correspond to various evolved games, including zero sum competitive games, positive sum exchange games, coalitional lottery games, games of aggressive competition corresponding to "chicken", and so on (for exchange, see Cosmides, 1989; Cosmides & Tooby, 1992). Behavior: All psychological mechanisms are involved in the generation and regulation of behavior, so obviously behavior will be regulated by emotion state. 1994. Ekman, P., Levenson, R. & Friesen, W. 1983. Such regulatory variables may include measures of: how valuable to the individual a mate is, a child is, one's own life is, etc. He used as an example contracting of eyebrows (furrowing the brow), which he noted is serviceable to prevent too much light from entering the eyes. In general (but with some notable exceptions), the closer the cooperative relationship and shared fitness interests, the more beneficial it is to share information; the more distant and adversarial the relationship, the more harmful it is. It is surely true that people sometimes "lie" with their faces. 1982. Signal detection thresholds shift: Less evidence is required before you respond as if there were a threat, and more true positives will be perceived at the cost of a higher rate of false alarms. a. cross cultural studies b. schachter's epinephrine studies c. brain-scan studies d. zuckerman's sensation-seeking studies Evidence of the presence (or absence) of high degrees of coordination between adaptive problems and the design features of putative adaptations allows researchers to distinguish adaptations, byproducts, and noise from one another (Williams, 1966; Cosmides & Tooby, 1997). Accordingly, to understand an adaptation as a problem-solver, one needs to model the enduring properties of the task-environment that selected for that adaptation -- the environment of evolutionary adaptedness, or EEA. Of course, it is beneficial to the transmitter to share certain types of information with adversaries, such as anger, triumph, or surrender, but many other types (fear of adversaries, pain, anxiety about weaknesses) ought to be suppressed. By an evolutionarily recurrent situation, we mean a cluster of repeated probabilistic relationships among events, conditions, actions, and choice-consequences, that endured over a sufficient stretch of evolutionary time to have had selective consequences on the design of the mind, and that were probabilistically associated with cues detectable by humans. 1970. Adults did not need to observe the negative effects of incest, because the Westermarck mechanism mobilizes disgust towards having sex with likely siblings (Shepher 1983). Cognitive Psychology, Emotions, evolutionary psychology, Neuropsychology Table of Contents Paul Ekman is an American psychologist and professor emeritus at the University of California, San Francisco who is a pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions. The negative valence of depression may be explained similarly: former actions that seemed pleasurable in the past, but which ultimately turned out to lead to bad outcomes, are re-experienced in imagination with a new affective coloration, so that in the future entirely different weightings are called up during choices. to Why are some emotions automatically signaled? In other words, physiological arousal is interpreted in context to produce the emotional experience. Two different problems equally well this provokes the question: why did selection build facial vocal. The extent that the same machine is rarely capable of solving two different problems equally well, J. Dupre Ed. 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