It lives in wet prairies, bogs and old fields. In many areas massasaugas also use adjacent uplands during part of the year. Generally, they use wetlands in the spring, fall, and winter. The eastern massasauga may take shelter in crayfish burrows or other underground cavities. Females give birth to litters of 5 to 20 live young in August or early September. Fish & Wildlife Service ECOS Environmental Conservation Online System Standard Survey Protocol. It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. They often hibernate in crayfish burrows but may also be found under logs and tree roots or in small mammal burrows. The female gives birth to four to 20 young in August or September, the number depending on her size and age. Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake Threats and Management. These habitats are used by massasaugas from early fall to late spring. In Indiana the eastern massasauga is rare and populations are limited to the northern half of the state. The venom of the Massasauga rattlesnake is hemolytic, which means it causes the breakdown of … A row of dark blotches is present down the back, and there are three rows of dark spots on the sides. Distribution and Habitat Geographic Range. Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) is a State Endangered Species and a Federally Threatened Species. A Species Survival Plan® is a collaborative science-based management program of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). Phone: 612-713-5360 The eastern massasauga averages 18 to 30 inches in length. Fun Facts The name "Massasauga" comes from a Chippewa Indian word meaning "great river mouth." This is because of its habitat of swamps, which are often found around the mouths of rivers. The Act protects the EMR and their habitat by prohibiting “take” and may require federal agencies to coordinate with the U.S. The eastern massasauga may be found in the northern two-thirds of Illinois. Unfortunately, the habitat of the eastern massasauga is being destroyed. U.S.FWS Species profile about species listing status, federal register publications, recovery, critical habitat, conservation planning, petitions, and life history U.S. Endangered Species Act (Act). We know that 38 percent of historical populations have been lost as of 2014 and the status of another 15 percent is uncertain. The eastern massasauga was first listed as a candidate species in 1982. Final Environmental Assessment for Eastern Massasauga Candidate Conservation Agreements in the Midwest. Mating may occur in spring or fall. This probably refers to the wet habitats preferred by the eastern and western subspecies. Spatial ecology, habitat preference, and habitat management of the eastern massasauga, Sistrurus c. catenatus, in a New York weaklyminerotrophic peatland. Eastern massasauga rattlesnakes can reach up to 30 inches in length. The name 'massasauga' means 'great river mouth' in the Chippewa language. West, Suite 990 The body is gray. Rattlesnake bites, while extremely rare in Michigan, can and do occur. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Midwest Region Massasaugas feed primarily on small mammals such as voles, moles, jumping mice, and shrews. Like all rattlesnakes, it is a pit viper, and like all pit vipers, it is venomous. Populations in southern Michigan are typically associated with open wetlands, particularly prairie fens, while those in northern Michigan are better known from lowland coniferous forests, such as cedar swamps (Legge and Rabe 1999). Since the massasauga requires open space, the habitat that remains is threatened by becoming overgrown by trees and shrubs. We know of 558 historical populations, of which 211 have been lost and the status of 84 is uncertain – with the likelihood that many of those populations have also been lost. The U.S. This rattlesnake is strongly associated with floodplain habitats along medium to large rivers, especially near river confluences, where they primarily occupy open canopy wetlands, such as sedge meadows, fresh wet meadows, shrub-carrs, and adjacent upland prairies, floodplain forests, … The presence of water that does not freeze is critical for suitabile hibernaculum. Our analysis projects a 90 percent reduction in number of populations over the next 50 years. They will shift the habitats they use, depending on the season. U.S. Email:, Range-wide Extinction Risk Modeling for the Minnesota, New York, Ohio,

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